Sonographic and Serological Survey of Hydatid Disease in Rural Regions of Shahdad and Chatroud, Kerman Province, 2006-2007
Moazezi S.S., Fasihi Harandi M., Saba M., Kamyabi H., Sheikhzadeh F.
Background & Aims: Human cystic Echinococcosis (CE) caused by larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, has a cosmopolitan distribution and is particularly more prevalent in rural regions. Iran is an endemic focus for CE and human cases are reported regularly from medical centers in different parts of Iran including Kerman. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis among rural communities in Shahdad and Chatroud in Kerman province. Methods: A total of 451 individuals (87 males and 364 females) were selected by randomized cluster sampling between 2006 and 2007. Demographic features were recorded in a questionnaire and abdominal ultrasonography was carried out. Then 5 ml venous blood sample was collected for ELISA test. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Multivariate logistic regression for risk factors analysis.
Results: Two hydatid cases (0.4%) were detected by ultrasonography. Serological results showed 8.8 % (37 cases) seropositivity, and females (9.7%) were more positive than males (4.9%). There was a significant difference in CE prevalence in different age groups (p=0.012). Results showed the seroprevalence of 8.5% and 9% in Shahdad and Chatroud respectively and there was no significant difference in CE prevalence rates between the two regions. Multivariate logistic regression showed that females were 4.6 times more likely to be infected than males (OR=4.6, 95% CI=1.27-16.79). Proper washing of vegetables decreased the probability of infection by 71% (OR=0.29, 95% CI=0.13-0.65).Dog ownership was not a significant risk factor of CE (OR=0.28, 95% CI=0.06-1.22, P=0.09). Housewives (9.6%) and farmers (9.1%) were more seropositve than other groups.
Canclusion: The study showed that seroprevalence of hydatid disease is relatively high in rural regions of Shahdad and Chatroud.
Keywords: Echinococcosis, Hydatidosis, Ultrasound, Seroprevalence, Epidemiology, Kerman